- Papers submitted to the conference should be unpublished work and not submitted for presentation or publication elsewhere.
- It is possible to submit papers not only in English but also in Turkish and in Greek. It is important to note however that manuscripts not written in English should contain an aditional abstract in English.
- Papers should be submitted by email to firstname.lastname@example.org in MS Office Word format.
- All accepted abstracts (should be between 100 and 150 words and contain at least three keywords) and full papers (not less than 2.500 words and not more than 3500 words) will be published in the proceeding e-book with ISBN before the conference.
- Revised and proofread conference papers (in English) will be published by IJOPEC Publication (co.uk) as an edited e-book after the conference (in December 2019), provided that the papers satisfy the referees and in proper APA styling.
- Manuscripts for the books that will be publiched in December 2019 should be typed single spaced and should not exceed 20 pages (not less than 4000 words and not more than 6000 words). Preferred length is 10-15 pages.
- Titles and subtitles are expected to be 12 words or fewer (NOT more than 15 words).
- Tables and figures should be numbered consecutively and titled.
- Decimals should be separated by a full-stop. In other words, digits should not be separated by commas.
- Equations should be numbered consecutively. Equation numbers should appear in parentheses at the right margin. In cases where the derivation of formulas has been abridged, the full derivation must be presented on a separate sheet (just for referee use).
- References should be listed on a separate page but NOT on a separate document.
- First page of the papers must contain the following information:
(i) The title of the manuscript
(ii) The name of the author(s)
(iii) Institutional affiliation(s) of the author(s)
(iv) An abstract of 100 – 150 words and at least three keywords
(v) Full contact information of all authors (address, phone, e-mail etc…)
- You are expected to submit in proper APA (American Psychological Association) styling. By following a uniform style, the publication process is more efficient for author and publisher alike, allowing for the swift and accurate typesetting of your work.
- Submissions that do not satisfy these conditions will be sent back to authors for re-submission.
APA Citation Basics
APA style specifies that major components of the paper (abstract, body, references, etc.) each begin on a new page with the heading centered at the top of the page. The body of the text is typically divided into sections with headings such as Method, Results, and Discussion. For an example of a paper properly formatted per the APA Manual, Sixth Edition, go to http://www.apastyle.org/manual/related/sample-experiment-paper-1.pdf
When there is an integrated citation for a work with multiple authors, separate the authors with the word “and.” For example:
Alm, Martinez-Vazquez, and Wallace (2009) questioned in their previous work validity of . . .
In an integrated citation that includes “et al.”, you would write the citation as such:
Kirchler et al. (2010) review the tax compliance decisions . . .
When writing an integrated citation for multiple citations, treat each citation as its own integrated citation. You would then separate the citations by a comma and an “and” between the last two citations.
The authors of Şenses (2015), Öniş (2016), Voyvoda and Yeldan (2016), and Taymaz et al. (2015) discuss in their research . . .
If the work is not directly referenced in the text but still needs to be cited, the citation will be moved to the end of the sentence, and the author’s name will be included along with the publication year, as in the following example: (Hobsbawm, 1991).
The page, or range of pages, where the information is found is identified by a “p.” for a single page or “pp.” for multiple pages. For example:
Although the APA style can seem difficult, it often is very easy to use once it has been practiced (Jones, 1998, pp. 24-32).
If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by “p.”). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author’s last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses, as in an integrated citation.
According to Jones (1998), “Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time” (p. 199).
If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author’s last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation, as in a parenthetical citation.
She stated, “Students often had difficulty using APA style” (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.
In-Text Citations: Author/Authors
In-text citations are used to show where you retrieved the information that you are using to make specific arguments in your writing.
Citing an Author or Authors
A basic citation will always use the author-date system. The pages the information is found on can also be included.
(Evans, 1992, pp. 139-140)
A Work by Two Authors
Name both authors in the parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word “and” between the authors’ names within an integrated citation, and use an ampersand (&) in a parenthetical citation:
(Fine & Waeyenberge, 2013)
A Work by Three to Five Authors
List all the authors in parentheses the first time you cite the source. Include a serial comma before the ampersand.
(Johansson, Heady, Arnold, Brys, & Vartia, 2008)
In later citations, only use the first author’s last name followed by “et al.” (meaning “and others”) in parentheses. Note that in “et al.,” the “et” should not be followed by a period.
(Johansson et al., 2008)
Organization as an Author
If the author is an organization or a government agency, write the organization’s full name in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source.
The purpose of the style was to give clarity and simplicity to the writing (American Psychological Association, 2000).
According to the American Psychological Association (2000), . . .
Two or More Works Cited at the Same Time
When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them the same way they appear in the reference list, separated by a semi-colon.
(Chang, 2006; Wade, 1990)
If multiple works by the same author or authors are cited simultaneously, use commas between the publication years, again, listing the sources in the same order that they appear in the reference list.
(Amsden, 1989, 1997)
Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year
If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation.
Research has shown (Allen, 2013a) that . . .
It was later discovered that these signs were indicative of a great underlying cause (Allen, 2013b).
Unlike in-text citations, reference citations include additional details beyond author and date. Each reference citation is made up of four parts: Author, Date, Title, and Publication Data. This information will be listed at the end of your article under the subtitle “References.”
The following is a step-by-step guide to building a reference citation using each of these four parts.
Reference List: Author/Authors
The following rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the type of work (book, article, electronic resource, etc.).
List the author’s last name first, followed by the author’s initials. For example: Fowler, R. B.
Minns, J. (2001). Of miracles and models: The rise and decline of the developmental state in South Korea. Third World Quarterly, 22(6), 1025-1043.
List authors by their last names and initials. Use an ampersand (&) instead of “and,” and include a comma between them. For example: Musgrave, R. A., & Musgrave, P. B.
Musgrave, R. A., & Musgrave, P. B. (1989). Public Finance in Theory and Practice. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Three to Seven Authors
List authors by their last names and initials. Use commas to separate author names, while the last author’s name is preceded again by an ampersand. For example: Kirchler, E., Muehlbacher, S., Gangl, K. Hofmann, E. Kogler, C., Pollai, M., & Alm, J.
Kirchler, E., Muehlbacher, S., Gangl, K. Hofmann, E. Kogler, C., Pollai, M., & Alm, J. (2012). Combining Psychology and Economics in the Analysis of Compliance: From Enforcement to Cooperation. Tulane University Economics Working Paper 1212.
Organization as Author
When a book or article is written by an organization, the organization’s name takes the place of the author’s. Do not abbreviate. For example: American Psychological Association.
American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Reference List: Date
The date in a reference citation will always appear in parentheses following the authors. Always include a period after the closing parenthesis. The following are examples of dates used in various reference scenarios, which will demonstrate how to organize your sources in the reference list.
Two or More Works by the Same Author
Use the author’s name for all entries and order the entries by year (earliest comes first).
Öniş, Z. (1992). The East Asian Model of Development and the Turkish Case: A Comparative Analysis. METU Studies in Development, 19(4), 495-528.
When an author appears both as the only author and, in another citation, as the first author of a group, list the one-author entries first, regardless of publication date.
Evans, P. (1995). Embedded Autonomy: States & Industrial Transformation. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Evans, P., Reuschemeyer, D., & Skocpol, T. (1985). The state and economic transformation: toward an analysis of the conditions underlying effective intervention. In P. Evans, D. Reuschemeyer, & T. Skocpol (Eds.), Bringing the State Back In. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Reference List: Title and Publication Data
APA style dictates that after the author and publication date information, described above, the title of the article is written in sentence case, meaning only the first word and proper nouns in the title are capitalized. The periodical title is written in title case (all words upper case except for articles, prepositions, and conjunctions), and is followed by the volume number, issue number and page numbers. The title of the periodical and the volume number will always be italicized.
Article in a Journal Paginated by Issue
Journals paginated by issue begin with page one in every issue; therefore, the issue number is indicated in parentheses after the volume. The parentheses and issue number are not italicized or underlined.
Alm, J., Martinez-Vazquez, J., & Wallace, S. (2009). Do tax amnesties work? The revenue effects of tax amnesties during the transition in the Russian federation. Economic Analysis & Policy, 39(2), 235-253.
Reference List: Books
In APA style, after the author names and the year of publication, the title of the book is written in sentence case and italicized (note that this is different from a journal reference). After the title, list the location of the publisher, followed by a colon and then the name of the book’s publisher.
Keyder, Ç. (1987). State and class in Turkey: A study in capitalist development. London: Verso.
Note: For “Location,” if the publisher is based in the United States, you should always list the city and the state using its two letter postal abbreviation without periods (New York, NY). For publishers based outside of the United States, list the city followed by the country (Pretoria, South Africa).
Book Written by One or More Authors
For a book by one or more authors, cite the authors, the book’s title, and the publisher’s information, as described above.
Baer, K., & Le Borgne, E. L. (2008). Tax amnesties: Theory, trends, and some alternatives. Washington D.C: International Monetary Fund.
Article or Chapter in an Edited Book
List the authors, year of publication, and title of the chapter. This is then followed by “In” and the name of the book in italics. List the editors before the title of the book and publisher’s information.
Batrancea, L., Nichita, A., Batrancea, I., & Kirchler, E. (2016). Tax Compliance Behavior – An Upshot of Trust in and Power of Authorities across Europe and MENA. In M. M. Erdoğdu, & B. Christiansen (Eds.), Handbook of research on public finance perspectives on Europe and the MENA region (pp. 248-267). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
Published Conference Proceedings
When citing a paper that was published in the conference proceedings, cite the paper as you would a chapter in an edited book.
Game, A. (2001). Creative ways of being. In J. R. Morss, N. Stephenson, & J. F. H. V. Rappard (Eds.), Theoretical issues in psychology: Proceedings of the International Society for Theoretical Psychology 1999 Conference (pp. 3-12). Sydney: Springer.
Should you need any more assistance, the internet is filled with great websites that can show you how to properly cite. Examples of these would be: www.calvin.edu/library/knightcite/index.php; http://www.citationmachine.net/apa/; http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/; http://www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/index.aspx